CTET Preparation

Get ahead in your CTET Preparation with inputs from our experts. Besides CTET, prepare for other State TETs including HTET, UPTET, RTET, MPTET and BETET. Ace the exam, and get a Teaching career this year.

Friday, 14 August 2015

Teaching Strategies – Child Development



1.            The method chosen for teaching is based broadly upon the following:-


a)            Awareness. Knowing about child development and learning what is typical at each age and stage of early development is essential. This knowledge, based on research, helps teachers decide which experiences are best for children’s learning and development.


b)            Individual Attention.            What the teachers learn about specific children helps them teach and care for each child as an individual. By continually observing children’s play and interaction with the physical environment and others, the teachers learn about each child’s interests, abilities, and developmental progress.

 
c)             Understanding the Culture.           Teachers must make an effort to get to know the children’s families and learn about the values, expectations, and factors that shape their lives at home and in their communities. This background information helps us provide meaningful, relevant, and respectful learning experiences for each child and family.


2.            An effective teacher chooses a strategy to fit a particular situation. It’s important to consider what the children already know and can do and the learning goals for the specific situation. By remaining flexible and observant, teachers can determine which strategy may be most effective. Often, if one strategy doesn’t work, another will.


a)            Acknowledge what children do or say. Let children know that we have noticed by giving positive attention, sometimes through comments, sometimes through just sitting nearby and observing.
 

b)            Encourage persistence and effort rather than just praising and evaluating what the child has done. Give specific feedback rather than general comments.


c)            Model attitudes, ways of approaching problems, and behaviour toward others, showing children rather than just telling them.

 
d)            Demonstrate the correct way to do something. This usually involves a procedure that needs to be done in a certain way. Create or add challenge so that a task goes a bit beyond what the children can already do.


e)            Ask questions that provoke children’s thinking. Give assistance (such as a cue or hint) to help children work on the edge of their current competence.


f)             Provide information, directly giving children facts, verbal labels, and other information.

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Wednesday, 12 August 2015

Types of Socialization: CTET Concepts


 

1.     Humans are not only social but also cultural. It is the culture that provides opportunities for humans to develop personality. Every society prescribes its own ways and means of giving social training to its new born member so that they may develop their own personality. This social training is called Socialization. The human child comes into the world as a biological organism with animal needs, it is gradually molded in society into a social being and learns the social way of acting and feeling.
 

2.            Types of Socialization
 

a)            Primary Socialization: This is the most essential and basic type of Socialization. It takes place in the early years of life of the new born individual. It concentrates on the teaching of language and cognitive skills, the interaction of culture, norms and values, establishment of emotional ties and the appreciation of other roles and perspectives. The human child does not have a sense of right and wrong, desirable and undesirable, moral and immoral. By trial and error by direct and indirect observation and experience, the child gradually learns the rules relating to right and wrong behavior.

 

b)            Development Socialization: This kind of learning is based on the achievements of primary socialization. It builds on already acquired skills and knowledge as the adult progress through new situations such as marriage or new jobs. Through these new expectations, obligations, and roles new learning is added to and blended with old in a relatively smooth and continuous process of development

 

c)            Anticipatory Socialization: Humans not only learn the culture of the group of which they are immediate members. They also learn the culture of groups to which they do not belong. A person who intends to join the police may start doing physical exercises to toughen his body and learning the manners of a policeman. Socialization is not a process that takes place merely in early childhood, it takes at different times and places throughout life.

 

d)            Re Socialization: It is not only individuals who change roles within groups, but they also change groups. It may also happen in periods of rapid social mobility. Eg. When a villager migrates to a city their requirements and interactions change drastically with regard to their interaction with their environment and people.


e)            Broad Socialization: It is intended to promote independence, individualism and self expression. E.g.: school or college student doesn’t have more independence than a university student

 
f)             Narrow Socialization: It is intended to promote obedient and conformity. Eg. you have to clean your table after eating.


g)            Natural Socialization: Occurs when infants and young start to explore, play and discover the social word. E.g. natural process when they role play the actions of police personnel or doctor.


h)            Planed Socialization: Occurs when other people take action with a desire to teach or train others from infancy. E.g.: an elder sibling can teach his younger sibling how to respect others.

Factors Influencing Socialization: CTET Concepts



1.            Imitation.       Imitation is copying by an individual of the actions of other Mead defines it as self-conscious assumption of another's acts or roles. Thus when the child attempts to walk impressively like his father swinging a stick and wearing spectacles he is imitating. Imitation may be conscious or unconscious, spontaneous or deliberate, perceptual or ideational, imitation. The person imitating performs exactly the same activity as the one being performed before him. Imitation is the main factor in the process of Socialisation of the child. Through it he learns many social behaviour patterns. The child in comparison to the adult, possesses the greatest capacity for imitation. Language and pronunciation are acquired by the child only through imitation. It is because of the tendency to imitate that children are so susceptible to the influence of their parents and friends whose behaviour they imitate indiscriminately.


2.            Suggestion. Suggestion is the process of communicating information, which has no logical or self-evident basis. It is devoid of rational persuasion. It may be conveyed through language, pictures or some similar medium. Suggestion influences not only behaviour with others but also one's own private and individual behaviour. In trade, industry, politics, education and every other field people acquainted with psychological facts make use of suggestions to have, their ideas and notions accepted by other people and to make the latter behave according to their wishes. Actually, propaganda and advertising are based on the fundamental psychological principles of suggestion. The suggestibility of the child is greater than that of the adult because in childhood he is devoid of maturity and reason. The suggestibility of an individual decreases with an increase in his maturity and mental level. It may be however necessary to keep in mind that there can be a difference in the suggestibility of children belonging to different society and also the same society. There are several external and internal conditions, which enhance suggestibility. Thus, temperament, intellectual ability, ignorance, inhibition, dissociation, emotional excitement and fatigue are some of the internal conditions of suggestibility. Among the external condition, mention may be made of group situation, prestige of the suggested and public opinion.


3.            Identification.           In early age, the child cannot make distinction between his organism and environment eg toilet training, hunger control. Most of its actions are random. They are natural reaction of which he is not conscious. As the child grows in age, it comes to know of the nature of things, which satisfy its needs. Such things become the object of its identification. Thus, the toy with which the child plays, the picture book, which it enjoys or looking and the mother who feeds it become the object of his identification. The speed and area of identification increases with the growth in age. Through identification the child becomes sociable.


4.            Language.    Language is the medium of social intercourse. It is the means of cultural transmission. At first the child utters some random syllables which have no meaning, but gradually he comes to learn his mother-tongue.

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Friday, 7 August 2015

Everything About Mathematics: CTET Preparation 2015

Nature of Mathematics
 
  • ´It relies on both logic and creativity
  • ´It is pursued both for a variety of practical purposes and for its intrinsic interest.
  • ´It is the science of patterns and relationships
  • ´It is also an applied science
  • ´It has got the relationship between almost all other fields of basic and applied science
  • ´It is the chief language of science
 Roger Bacon said that Mathematics is the gateway and key of all sciences
 
Aims of teaching Mathematics
 
Methods of teaching Mathematics
 
 
 
According to Brondy (1963), ‘method’ refers to the formal structure of the sequence of acts commonly denoted by instruction.  The word ‘method’ convers both strategies and techniques of teaching and involves the choice of what is to be taught.
 
 During the process of learning Mathematics, teacher should focus on the method of delivering knowledge and transmitting mathematical skills to the children and their comprehension and application by them.
 
Answering the questions such as “what to teach?”, “how to teach Mathematics?”, “by which approaches?” etc.
 
 
To know more, join The CTET Advantage Program. Visit us at www.niit.com/ctet or call us on 1800-103-2020.
 

 

Factors Affecting Child Development : Basics for CTET Exam !



1.         Child development is affected by a variety of factors ranging from societal, governmental policies to individual cognitive and physical abilities. Hence children enter school demonstrating various levels of readiness. Therefore it is essential that a teacher have the basic understanding of the factors that affect the development of a child. Understand that the ultimate effect of these factors on the child’s learning are moulded by other conditions related to the child, its family, community and society at large. In most cases it is a combination of factors which determines the differential development among children. To help teachers assess the factors affecting a child’s development, they have been grouped into four primary areas:


a)               Environmental factors

b)               Biological factors

c)               Interpersonal relationships

d)               Early environments and experiences


2.         Environmental Factors.      These factors are related to housing, safety, income of parents and their employment and educational status, and access to facilities for education.


3.         Biological Factors.   These are factors related to gender, health (both physical and mental) and health practices.


4.         Interpersonal Relationships.         Relationships are particularly important as infants learn primarily through their relationship with others. Eye contact, smiles and imitation set the stage for more sustained communication and meaningful exchanges and engagement with parents and other caregivers, and a growing world of relationships. These are defined by the sense of attachment, Parenting styles and nature of social networks.


5.         Early Environments and Experiences.   The most important early environment for an infant is its primary caregiver. How the primary caregiver responds to the child shapes the early brain pathways and builds the foundation for future learning. Early experiences involve all senses through Touch, Smell, Taste, Sight, Hearing. A child needs experiences like these to develop its social, emotional, language, cognitive, and physical skills. Over time these experiences become more and more complex until it has reached the ability to think symbolically, build bridges between ideas, connect feelings and develop an understanding of how the world works. All this is done through continued reciprocal interactions with adults and peers.
 
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Wednesday, 5 August 2015

CTET Preparation Techniques by NIIT Expert's

Structure of CTET

´The CTET examination has two separate papers, one each for Primary and Secondary school teachers.

´Depending on your requirement, you may choose either one or both the papers as both are mutually exclusive.

´The total marks for each paper is 150 with the minimum qualifying marks for each paper being 60% (i.e. 90 out of 150 marks).

´The total time given for this exam is 2.5 hrs, which gives you a minute per question in which you would be required to read, understand and mark out the value correctly on the answer sheet.

Preparation Techniques
´Go through the syllabus for the exam very carefully.

´Take a print out of the syllabus from the official CTET site, for ready reference. As the area to be covered is vast, you may have to go through the syllabus often to avoid deviating from the topics of study.

´Be organized and systematic in your preparation. Decide on one subject and begin studying it systematically one topic after the other.

´Suggest that you begin with Child Development And Pedagogy as this subject contains certain fundamental concepts. A good understanding of which would make the study of other subjects easy.

´ Also, for those of you who are appearing in both Papers – I and II, the topics of study in this subject are almost the same for both.
 
´  Once you have gained adequate understanding of one subject, you can try solving a few question papers of the same. This will enable you to :
a)  Familiarize yourself with the pattern of the question paper for that subject.
b)  Gauge your understanding of the subject.
c)  Gauge your level of preparedness for testing.
d)  Mark out some pet topics/questions by the frequency of their appearance in various papers.
 
´It is important to note that quite a few questions on topics such as Piaget’s developmental theory or Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development are based on the application of the same by a teacher in a classroom situation.
´So, gaining a good understanding of these and other such theories is to be preferred over blind memorizing.
´Subject based papers i.e. Math's and Social Studies in Paper – I and Math's - Science and Social Sciences in Paper- II, refer to the subject textbooks of any good CBSE school.
´Important to remember that, the questions that are asked may be of a class higher than the one you are teaching or intend to teach, i.e. the math's questions in Paper – I may be from classes 6 or 7 and those in Paper – II, from classes 9 and 10.
´A careful scrutiny of the previous years’ question papers will show you that some questions from each of these subjects, have appeared in more than one paper.

´Studying the pedagogical aspects of Language I of your paper first will make the understanding of the same in Language II easier as they are fundamentally almost the same.

´If you have chosen Hindi as your second language, it will be a good idea to make a list of difficult words and find their meanings (from online resources) such as ‘shabdkosh’.

´Once you have crossed the hurdle of understanding the questions ( owing to the language) you will find that most of them are based on the topics that you have already covered in Language I and you will have no difficulty in answering them correctly.


´A few days before the exam, go through the model of the answer sheet on the official CTET site. You can take a print out of the same and practice filling it. This will familiarize you with the structure of the answer sheet and help avoid any confusion while filling in your details on the day of the exam.

On the Day of the Exam:

´On the day of the exam, read the paper very carefully. Remember to make sure that you are attempting only the subjects that you’ve chosen, especially in case of the language papers.

´For the reading comprehension in the language papers, it’s advisable to do a quick reading of the questions that you are meant to answer after reading the passage, before you begin reading the passage itself.

´This way, you will know which parts of the passage to read more carefully than others thereby saving time while answering the questions.

´If you divide the total time of 2 hours and 60 minutes between 150 questions, you get one minute to answer each question.

´Plan your paper accordingly. You may quickly attempt the easy questions first saving some extra time for the difficult ones.

´Mark the latter on the question paper so that you don’t forget to answer them altogether.

´Remember to be extremely careful when marking your options in the answer sheet as there is no way you can undo what has once been done on it.


A smart, systematic and diligent preparation can go a long way in getting you good results in the CTET. Practice it and success will be yours for the taking.


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