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Tuesday, 30 June 2015

Educational Implications of Growth and Development


1.            Education is not only a process and a product of growing, it means growing. It aims at the fullest possible realization of all the potentialities of children. This implies that teachers and parents must know what children are capable of and what potentialities they possess. Equipped with this knowledge they should provide suitable opportunities and favorable environmental facilities which are conducive to the maximum growth of children. Apart from these opportunities, it is necessary that their attitudes are helpful, encouraging and sympathetic.

 

2.            School programmers, procedures and practices should be adjusted to the growth and maturational levels of children, bearing in mind the individual variations in rates of growth. Since various aspects of growth are interrelated, parents and teachers should pay attention to all aspects. Good physical growth, for example, through the provision of play, games and sports, is conducive to effective intellectual development; malnutrition has been found to be an important factor that retards development: hence, teachers and parents should cooperate in cultivating among pupils habits of balanced eating. The principles of development have highlighted the importance of “individual differences” from one child to the other and from one stage to another. This fact justifies the provision of diversified courses for the development of specific talents, abilities and interests and a rich and varied programme of co-curricular activities. Similarly, the curricular activities should be based on the needs and interests of various stages of growth i.e., childhood, boyhood or later childhood, pre- adolescence and adolescence.

 

3.            Each stage of growth has its possibilities and limitations. This implies that teachers and parents should not demand of pupils or children what is beyond their stage of growth. If they do so, they will only cause frustrations, heighten tension and nervousness in children. For example, it is wrong to expect a primary school child to appreciate abstract concepts and theories. The ‘inter-relatedness of growth’ demands presentation of knowledge in an interrelated manner and its integration with action. Since each child grows in his own unique way, it is but opposite that parents and teachers should treat each child as a unique individual and provide for this special needs and interests. While every child is unique, there are certain developmental milestones that children typically reach as they grow and mature. The following information can help you learn what to expect from children at various ages and stages of development.

 

5 to 8 Years
Characteristics
Learning Methodologies
Physical Characteristics
 Are learning how to use their bodies by mastering physical skills
 Are skilled at using scissors and small tools
 Can use large muscles better than small muscles
 Long arms and legs may give a gawky, awkward appearance
 Are at a period of slow, steady growth
 Have them do small and large muscle activities.
 Use active learning experiences.
 Do activities that encourage physical activity—running, moving, cutting with scissors, painting, assembling, etc.
 They are messy with meals, arts/crafts, so be ready to help.
Social/emotional Characteristics
 Want to be with friends
 Girls tend to want to play with girls, boys with boys
 Are sensitive to criticism; don’t accept failure well; seek a sense of security in groups, organized play and clubs
 Make-believe activities allow them to imagine how others think and feel.
 Plan activities that can be done alone or in small groups. Try to rotate the members of small groups.
 Involve both sexes in activities.
 Give positive encouragement and assistance. Plan activities that promote success vs. individual activities with a winner and a loser.
Cognitive (Intellectual)
 Longer attention spans
 Can’t multi-task well
 Problem-solving ability improves
 Speaking and listening improves and vocabularies double
 Focus on process, not the final product.
 Plan short activities.
 Give one to two tasks at a time.
 Allow for exploration and inquiry.
9 to 11 Years
Characteristics
Implications
Physical development
 Girls generally as much as 2 years ahead of boys in physical maturity
 Increased body and strength and hand dexterity
 Improved coordination and reaction time  Lots of energy
 Provide active learning experiences.
 Avoid competition between boys and girls.
Social/emotional
 Begin to see parents and authority figures as fallible human beings
 Rituals, rules, secret codes and made-up languages are common
 Increased interest in competitive sports
 Show independence by disobedience, back talk and rebelliousness, but still want guidance
 Enjoy cooperation
 Work closely with this group.
 Hold initiations and installation ceremonies for new members and officers.
 Do some activities that allow children to work together.
 Give children a voice in the decision-making process.
Cognitive (Intellectual)
 Fantasize and daydream about the future
 May develop special interest or hobbies
 Capable of understanding concepts without having direct hands-on experience
 Offer a wide range of activities to ensure success.
 Encourage children to ask questions and research answers.
 Allow children to explore special interests.
 
Early Adolescence – Teenage Years
Characteristics
Implications
Physical
 Tend to sleep longer
 Tend to be more clumsy and self-conscious  Tend to compare themselves to peers
 Offer varied opportunities to achieve and to have their competence recognized by others.
 Allow them to have down time.
Social/emotional
 Moodiness and parent-child conflict may increase
 Often spend more time with peers than family members
 Greater need for autonomy
 May struggle with sense of identity
 Looking for a sense of independence, but still want help from parents
 Encourage learning experiences related to getting along with others as well as getting to know themselves.
 Encourage them to work with adults and other teen members on a project.
 Provide activities that foster social interaction.
 Develop an environment in which teens support each other.
 Form planning committees for events.
 Use peer pressure in a positive manner.
Cognitive (Intellectual)
 Develop heightened level of self-consciousness
 Become very cause oriented
 Tend to exhibit a “justice” orientation
 Self-regulation improves
 Become better at everyday decision making
 Encourage a greater development of leadership skills.
 Provide opportunities in the community.
 Let young people take responsibility for decision making.
 Use activities that allow them to explore and identify their philosophies.
 Encourage interest in national and world problems.

 

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